ICD-9 code reporting among patients from the Minnesota SARI surveillance program

The ICD-9 codes for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and pneumonia/influenza (P&I) are commonly used in ARI surveillance; however, few studies evaluate the accuracy of these codes or the importance of ICD-9 position. We reviewed ICD-9 codes reported among patients identified through severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance to compare medical record documentation with medical coding and evaluated ICD-9 codes assigned to patients with influenza detections. 

July 06, 2017

Identifying Key Transmission Route of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) in Live Poultry Markets

Live poultry markets (LPMs) continue to operate in many Asian countries. Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are often endemic in the poultry, and LPM presents the opportunity for human-poultry interactions and potential human infections with avian influenza viruses.

July 06, 2017

Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT)

The Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) is an evaluation tool developed by CDC and external influenza experts that assesses the potential pandemic risk posed by influenza A viruses that currently circulate in animals but not in humans. The IRAT assesses potential pandemic risk based on two different scenarios: “emergence” and “public health impact.”

March 29, 2018

Outbreak Response and Active Surveillance for Avian Influenza among Human Contacts in Nigeria, 2015: One Health Approach

H5N1 virus occurs mainly in birds. It is highly contagious and deadly among them. However, transmission in human is rare. The first and only confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza H5N1 virus in Nigeria was in 2006. Sporadic infection among poultry has been occurring in Nigeria with yearly estimated loss of millions of Dollars. Six Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria reported confirmed cases of H5N1 among birds. Affected birds were culled and human avian influenza surveillance was instituted.

October 05, 2017

Data Blindspots: High-Tech Disease Surveillance Misses the Poor

Evidence from over 100 years of epidemiological study demonstrates a consistent, negative association between health and economic prosperity. In many settings, it is clear that causal links exist between lower socioeconomic status and both reduced access to healthcare and increased disease burden. However, our study is the first to demonstrate that the increased disease burden in at-risk populations interacts with their reduced access to healthcare to hinder surveillance.


August 31, 2017

Estimating FluNearYou Correlation to ILINet at Different Levels of Participation

Flu Near You allows individuals to volunteer to be a sentinel node of the syndromic surveillance (SyS) network. The platform has the potential to provide insight into the spread of influenza-like illness (ILI). CDC’s ILINet is the gold standard for tracking ILI at the national level, but does not track into the local level. Local health departments (LHD) frequently express a need for granular data specific to their jurisdictions. FNY attempts to meet this need by collecting and sharing data at the zip code level.

August 31, 2017

Impact of Interventions on Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Activity in Live Poultry Markets

H7N9 virus emerged in Eastern China in March 2013, which led to >550 human cases and >200 deaths in 2 years. Live poultry markets (LPMs) are considered as a major source of human H7N9 infections. In late 2013, the virus had spread to the southern provinces including Guangdong. Its provincial capital Guangzhou, detected its first local H7N9 human case in mid-January 2014 and reaching 10 cases in a month. As a response, Guangzhou government announced a two-week city-wide market closure, banning trading and storing of live poultry.

October 10, 2017

Evaluation of National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System in Nigeria, Jan-Dec 2014

National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance (NISS) was established in Nigeria in 2006 to monitor influenza occurrence in humans in Nigeria and provide a foundation for detecting outbreaks of novel strains of influenza. Surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) is carried out in 4 sentinel sites. Specimens and epidemiological data are collected and transported 4 days a week from the sentinel sites to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory.

August 31, 2017

Improving the Value Proposition of Surveillance Tools: Innovative Uses for VA ESSENCE

VA began using ESSENCE as a public health surveillance tool in 2005. The system offered alerting capability for pre-defined syndromes and querying capability for outpatient ICD-9 diagnosis codes. Herein, we highlight examples of how we have invested in upgrades to analytic capabilities and expanded data sources available to ESSENCE in order to augment the overall utility of this system within VA.


October 10, 2017

Evaluation of Point of Need Diagnostic Tests for Use in California Influenza Outbreaks

Each year several thousands contract the seasonal flu, and it is estimated that these viruses are responsible for the deaths of over six thousand individuals [1]. Further, when a new strain is detected (e.g. 2009), the result can be substantially more dramatic [2]. Because of the potential threats flu viruses pose, the United States, like many developed countries, has a very well established flu surveillance system consisting of 10 components collecting laboratory data, mortality data, hospitalization data and sentinel outpatient care data [3].

August 31, 2017


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